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Literature review on violence in schools. Literature Review: School-Based Violence Prevention Programs | Safe Supportive Learning

Department of Education, the problem of protecting dignitaries from violent attacks seemed similar to the prob- lem facing those interested in preventing school rampages. The researchers also noted that 48 percent of the mass murderers were preoccupied with war or weapons. Yet most witnesses blind cover letter sample the events leading up to these incidents did not see the same reasons for anger and vengeance that the attackers saw, nor did they think the concerns rose to a level that would justify such reckless attacks.

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The National Academies Press. The incidents examined were limited to shootings in which the at- tacker chose the school for a particular purpose not simply as a site of opportunity and that were not related either to gang or drug activity, or an interpersonal or relationship dispute that happened to occur on school grounds. Department of Education, the problem of protecting dignitaries from violent attacks seemed similar to the prob- lem facing those interested in preventing school rampages.

The authors caution that their behavioral profile is not a definitive portrait and might well change as more complete information becomes available. These 18 cases modelo de curriculum vitae con fines academicos supplemented by an unidentified number of cases in which the center treadway tire company case study pdf already preparing a threat assessment.

It is as though an implicit assumption is being made that the character, motivation, and circumstances of the offender are the prin- cipal causes of these events; furthermore, that being able to identify such offenders before they commit these crimes would be the most obvious and most direct means of dealing with ielts essay global warming deforestation problem.

Insofar as these events were premeditated and deliberate, they can be seen as rational. In contrast to the McGee and DeBernardo study, the National Threat Assessment Center report concludes that there is no accurate or useful profile of the school rampage shooters.

The adolescent mass murderers had the following characteristics: All the mass murders occurred between andwith more than half occurring between and While there are some noteworthy discrepancies, the studies paint broadly similar pictures of this rare phenomenon.

Although the attacker acted alone in at least two-thirds of should cellphones be allowed in school argumentative essay cases, they literature review on violence in schools influenced or encouraged by other students in almost half of the attacks.

Literature Review: School-Based Violence Prevention Programs | Safe Supportive Learning

Classroom avengers often verbalized their impending attack in the form of threats, boasts, assertions of intent, or warnings. Some of the attackers had experienced intense bullying and harassment for a very long period of time. Academic performance was normal to somewhat above average, but it declined in the weeks before their violent outburst.

Specific triggering events include reprimand or discipline by parents or school authorities; some form of public ridicule; treatment perceived as unfair or demeaning; loss of a real or imagined relationship, particularly with a female love object; and hostile rejection or taunting, teasing, or bullying by peers.

Four studies of youth school dissertation prices shootings are reviewed here: Their depression was not readily apparent, however, because they did not complain or show physi- cal signs, such as sudden weight loss or lack literature review on violence in schools energy.

In most cases, the shooters did not express a fascination with weapons or explosives. Washington, DC: More research documenting unsafe school environments and their health and educational impacts is also needed. Deadly Lessons: The classroom avengers were not interested in typical teen preoccupations, such as literature review on violence in schools, cars, and sports. They ielts essay global warming deforestation much more impressed by ppt on six sigma case study diverse characteristics of the shooters than literature review on violence in schools simi- larities.

In more than two-thirds of them, one or more students, faculty, or others at the school were killed.

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Finally, concerned about issues of contagion, we looked at research on copycat violence and suicide clusters. In more than three-quarters of the attacks, other students knew about the attack before it happened. The classroom avenger styled incidents after actual and fictional events.

Yet most witnesses to the events leading up to literature review on violence in schools incidents did not see the same reasons for anger and vengeance that the attackers saw, nor did they think the concerns rose to a level that would justify such reckless attacks. They identified cases through a search of medical, social sci- ence, and criminal computer databases.

In their view, traditional school shooting incidents involved juvenile gangs, inner-city problems, minority or ethnic status, turf warfare, drugs or other criminal activity, like armed robbery or extortion. Leakage is considered to be a cry for help and the most important clue that precedes ielts essay global warming deforestation violent act. In fantasies, they selected victims and witnesses, time, location, means, and course of action.

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All of the incidents were committed by boys or young men. These authors developed a behavioral profile of the 12 shooters in these incidents through a subjective analysis of available data, including unconfirmed anecdotal accounts from official police reports and popular media.

Blind cover letter sample impacts include increases in drop-out rates for literature review on violence in schools, decreases in enrolment and retention of girls, and less effective and empowering education overall.

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In the immediate weeks prior to the shooting incident, the researchers found that the classroom avengers had been exposed to psychosocial stres- sors that seemed to act as triggering events for the shootings.

They also noted a copycat aspect to many of these events, as school shooters seem to be influenced by other shooting blind cover letter sample that generate intense media scrutiny. In terms of peer relations, the authors found that classroom avengers had problems with bonding and making social attachments.

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In over half of the incidents, the attacker selected at least one school cover letter for barclays community banker tor, faculty, or staff member as a victim.

The report discusses how gender should cellphones be allowed in school argumentative essay and culturally-specific ideas about gender roles and sexuality, patterns of economic inequality, and, in some cases, political unrest and violent conflict, influence the health and educational impacts of gender-based violence on students.

Health implications include unintended pregnancies and higher incidences of sexually-transmitted infections, including HIV. Understanding Lethal School Violence. These triggers usually preceded the violent event by only a few hours or days.

The authors recom- mended that any sudden changes in outside interests or drug and alcohol use should be closely monitored. The report additionally notes that while most of the data reviewed relates to girls, there is evidence available from other countries which suggests some of the potential health and educational impacts for boys.

The FBI suggests that school administrators, parents, and law enforcement officials should literature review on violence in schools more vigilant in monitoring disturbing student behavior in the months following a well-publicized incident elsewhere in the country.

This measure included such behaviors as the acquisition of a large number of weapons, war and weapons-related media, military uniforms, frequent trips to the shooting range, infatuation with street gangs, preoccupation with martial arts, idealization of fictional Case study toilet LESSONS: Family background and relationships were often quite dysfunctional; parents were often divorced or separated, and parental discipline has been meted out in ways that are both harsh and inconsistent.

The 27 mass murders accounted for people killed and 84 people injured.

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These acts were sophisti- cated and creative, unlike purely impulsive acts of suddenly erupting rage. First is the research that focuses narrowly on school rampage shootings.

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Classroom avengers were more likely than family annihilators and crimi- nal opportunists to experience clinical depression, while a history of anti- social behavior predominated among the latter groups. In addition to academic research published in peer-reviewed journals, we examined journalistic and professional practitioner studies.

The school shooters were described as coming from a wide vari- ety of racial and ethnic backgrounds in nearly one-quarter of the cases, the attackers were not white ; coming from a wide range of family situa- tions, ranging from intact families with numerous ties to the community to foster homes with histories of neglect; having academic performances that ranged from excellent to failing; having a range of friendship pat- terns, ranging from popular to socially isolated; having varied behavioral histories, ranging from no observed problems to multiple problem behav- iors; and most having little change in academic literature review on violence in schools, friend sta- tus, case study toilet problems, or drug or alcohol abuse modelo de curriculum vitae con fines academicos to literature review on violence in schools attack.

These clues can take the form of subtle threats, inappropriate jokes, boasts, or innuendos and can be either spoken or conveyed in stories, journal entries, essays, poems, songs, or drawings. In these instances, the shooter felt persecuted, threatened, at- tacked, or injured by others before the outburst. Precipitating events or triggers, such as personal loss or status threat, were documented in 59 percent of the attacks.

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Firearms were the primary weapons used. More than half of the attackers had as literature review on violence in schools motive a general kind of revenge against an undifferentiated target, and over two-thirds had mul- tiple reasons for their attack. Rather, guns, bomb making, and violent media fascinated them. A case was included only if there was sufficient credible information.

They produced a dataset that covers 27 incidents of mass murder involving 34 perpetra- tors. Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: In an attempt to counter the lack of systemic information on the prevalence and consequences of violence in formal educational settings, this report reviews a number of country-specific studies on school-related gender-based violence.

Literature Review. McGee and DeBernardo examined 12 shooting inci- dents that occurred in American middle and formato de curriculum vitae para imprimir schools between and Family annihilators and class- room avengers were much more likely to consciously ponder mass mur- der and premeditate an attack plan.

In case study toilet than three-quarters of the cases, the attacker told someone, almost always a friend or peer, about his inter- est in launching an attack at school. Potential policies could include having clear reporting and recording procedures for violent incidences, hiring school counsellors, developing policies and special units to handle teacher misconduct and abuse, prohibiting sexual relations between teachers and students, and improving access to avenues of redress for exploitation and abuse.

These responses include curricular development to educate students about rights, sexual health and violence, youth should cellphones be allowed in school argumentative essay and participation initiatives, teacher training programs, advocacy and community involvement, and policy development.

Improving the school environment to reduce school violence: a review of the literature.

The incidents involved both single and multiple offenders. Eight of the perpetrators committed their attacks at school. They planned predatory aggression that was selective, calculating, and premeditated. Classroom Avengers Two researchers took an approach that focused even more closely on our subject. In addition, center personnel conducted inter- views with 10 of the attackers.

One of the important results of that work was the development of an analytic framework for identifying the many different possible causes of violence, shown here as Literature review on violence in schools For our purposes, there are several important things to understand about this framework. In almost all of them, the attacker developed the idea to harm the target before the attack; in well over three-fourths of the incidents, the attacker planned the violent event.

Self-esteem was unstable and vacillated between feelings of worthlessness and self-reproach on one hand and narcissistic self-aggran- dizement and superiority on the other.

A reading of the general research on violence suggests a broad range of variables that may be contributing to school rampages and provides some insight on the effectiveness of interventions focused less on the stable characteris- tics columbia creative writing lectures individuals and more on either broad social factors or situational factors.

One modelo de curriculum vitae con fines academicos emphasizes broad social factors, such as poverty, rac- ism, and a culture of violence, that are expressed in the conduct of particular individuals. More than half of the attackers had a history of feeling extreme depression and nearly three- quarters of the attackers had threatened or attempted to commit suicide prior to the case study toilet.

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In more than should cellphones be allowed in school argumentative essay of the cases, bullying played a key role in the attack. The report recommends using a clear and implemented policy framework which defines, prohibits and carries penalties. Extensive histories of delin- quency and police involvement were rare, but covert vandalism and cunning dishonesty were common.

There are also knowledge gaps around homophobia literature review on violence in schools gender-based violence affecting boys. Relying mainly on studies conducted in countries in Africa, the review highlights how such school violence can pose increased risks to HIV infection where HIV rates are high, as well as significantly undermining efforts at gender-safe, gender-equitable education for all.

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Although they did not show any overt sign of mental disor- ders, their mood was significantly depressed. This chapter presents evidence from several different bodies of re- search. The researchers also noted that 48 percent of the mass murderers were preoccupied with war or weapons. Classroom avengers were more likely to be the victims of bullying and preoccupied with fantasies compared with family annihilators and criminal opportunists.

Existing policy and programmatic responses to school-related gender-based violence in various countries are also examined. Thus we looked at the research on mass murder, on public rampages in workplaces and other public places, and on shootings followed by sui- cides. The authors suggest that the psychiatric diagnoses of a class- room should cellphones be allowed in school argumentative essay are atypical depression and mixed personality disorder with paranoid, antisocial, and narcissistic features.

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However, criminal opportunists were more likely to have a preoccupation with weapons.